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Reducing oil re-usage reduces NCD risk factor thereby increasing waste oil disposal to produce bio-fuel for refugee camps

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Summary

Summary

According to Global Burden of Disease study, the burden of non- communicable diseases in Arab world has increased, with variations between countries of different levels. Like many countries, Jordan is experiencing an epidemiological transition with a shift from communicable to non-communicable diseases (NCDs).

According to WHO national response for prevention and control of NCDs, 76% of all the deaths are caused due to NCDs, among those, cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death, accounting for 35%. Obesity is the main risk factor for many NCDs in Jordan. 80% of General Government Health Expenditure (GGHE) is spent on hospital care, given that majority of care attribute to NCDs.

Jordanian cuisine has popular fried food called ‘Falafel’, consumed by all socio-economic classes. Due to its low cost and easy availability, it serves as a main food for many. Increase in the production of falafel leads to increase in oil consumption. Repeated use of same oil is common in the frying process which increases oil penetration into the food. This elevates levels of trans fats, thermoxidized and polymerized products in the food that develop chronic diseases, like cardiovascular risk factors.

Although, Jordan Food and Drug Administration has the mandate to inspect and prevent the repeated oil usage, not much work has been done on the assessment of oil usage in the food making business. Assessing oil usage provides information on quality of the oil which reflects the cause of NCD risk factor prevalence among people. Digital live data collection technology shall be used for assessment which would help the decision makers to monitor and prevent re-usage of oil, thereby reducing the consumption of fried foods which control NCDs in the country. This would further accumulate the used oil for disposal. As the next step, disposed oil can be collected and used for biofuel production which can be used to generate electricity for millions of refugee at the camps.

What are the key outcomes and impact of your solution?

I.              Assessment of frying oil usage at the restaurants in Jordan

o   Real- time digital mobile data collection for assessment

o   Dash board for each Governorate present live reports on the oil usage at restaurants of different level

o   Oil re-usage data help health ministries to redefine the plan of action on NCD control

o   Serve as sustainable monitoring tool to control the re- use of oil

o   Provide data to reduce the growing health and economic burden of NCDs in the country, and need for joint action by decision makers

o   Dash board on oil re-usage at different governorate would strengthen implementation of national strategy and action plan against hypertension, diabetes and obesity

o   Generate data on quality of oil and number of times the oil being used in the restaurants

o   Provide the amount of oil that will be disposed if repeated oil re-usage is prevented

o   Data enable the partners to estimate the cost and quantity of biofuel production

o   By reducing the NCD risk factor on controlling the oil re-usage will reduce the general government health expenditure spent on inpatient/outpatient care; taken into account that majority of the inpatient care is attributed to NCDs

II.             Testing the quality of reused oil

o   This will yield information quality of oil such as discoloration, viscosity, transformation of components in the oil, presence of carbon from food etc.

o   Help update Food & Drug Administration department  regulations on oil use

o   Create knowledge among people on health hazards due to intake of food prepared from re-used oil

o  Oil quality data can estimate cost on recycling oil to produce biofuel by oil company

III.            Support Jordan Food and Drug Administration (JFDA) to develop guidelines for oil usage at the restaurants

o   Analyze status and need to update regulations

o   Update their protocol to inspect oil usage in restaurants

o   Educate people on the health hazards of fried food consumption and to reduce the consumption of fried foods

o   Frame new regulations to reduce total tans-fat in oil and consumption of oil re-usage in restaurant

o    Develop guideline on oil usage for frying in the restaurants, which will strengthen the laws on oil usage and reduce the frequency of oil re-usage

o   Develop monitoring tool for a sustainable oil re-usage monitoring at the restaurants

 

IV.           Support Ministry of Health and other partners working on NCDs

o   Increase the focus on the consumption of fried food from restaurants which is the lead cause for the cardiovascular diseases

o    More focus to walk along with the regional NCD framework

 

V.             Biofuel production

o   Cost of biofuel produced from waste frying oil is 3 times less expensive and environmental friendly than the regular diesel

o   Biofuel produced using a cost effective techniques will serve as fuel to feed generators for house hold and schools at low economic areas

o   Provide fuel to operate generators at refugee camps for various purposes

What actions do you propose to realize your stated goals?

Objective:

 Reduce the major risk factors of non-communicable diseases by reducing the oil being re-used at restaurants for frying process and to increase the accumulation of waste oil for biofuel production to operate generators at refugee camps.  

Beneficiaries: People of all ages, Jordan Food and Drug Administration, Ministry of Health, other government bodies, NGOs, Civil Societies working on public health, National Petroleum Company.

Engaging health and non-health sector for coordination and implementation:

1.    Conduct meetings with focal points at different sectors to convey the purpose and benefit of the project. Further to get approval from concerned authorities

2.    Regular policy dialogue meetings with stakeholders will be conducted to gain support and commitment to implement the project

3.    Conduct regular workshops with the health and non- health sector partners to update the status of the project and to meet the challenges/obstacles arising from the initiation of the program

I.               Assessment of frying oil usage at the restaurants in Jordan:

1.    Questionnaire will be developed for assessment

2.    Mapping the areas to perform the assessment: areas will be selected randomly to cover all socio-economic level of population

3.    Convenient sampling will be done from the restaurants of all socio-economic levels, which is based on the area of the restaurant, type and frequency of people visiting, and hygiene

4.    Assessment will be carried out in the targeted restaurants for the first 6 months to one year as a piloting and later will be implemented as a sustainable monitoring tool

5.    Tablets and smart phones will be used for the data entry

6.    Digitalizing the data collection for assessment:

-          Development of questionnaire to assess the usage of oil: questions for the assessment will be prepared and will be computerized in digital system after the approval from Jordan Food and Drug Administration, and Ministry of Health 

-          Customizing the mobile data tool: after the final approval from the concerned governmental authorities, the questionnaire will be computerized and the mobile tool will be customized for further installation in tablets and smart phones

-          After entering the sampling details, the data can also be entered off line and later it can be synchronized when accessed to the internet.

-          Training will be provided on using the digital data tool. The training will be on using accessing data server, operating the data set, data entry and editing: i) as a first step, training of trainers (TOT) will be provided to the supervisors, ministry of health, FDA and petroleum company focal points ii) trained supervisors from TOT will further train the field monitors and data collectors involved in the assessment

-          Field testing will be done before the assessment, to ensure the quality of the data entry.

7.    Creating Dash board to visualize the result for each sector at each governorate: dash board will be created for each sector in each governorate of Jordan. All the partners who are accessible to the dash board can visualize the report on the assessment. Visualization will be done graphically and numerically

II.             Testing the quality of reused oil:

1.    Sample collection: random sampling will be done at restaurants in 12 governorates. Used oil sample will be collected at every targeted restaurant, based on the area of the restaurant, type and frequency of people visiting, and hygiene

2.    Oil discoloration will be assessed virtually

3.    Oil quality will be assessed to find out total polar material (TPM)

4.    Oxy fry kit will be used to study the quality of the oil

5.    High performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) will also be used for oil testing

6.    MS/MS will be used to find out pesticide residues in the used oil

7.    Result will be shared with all the partners for further decision making

III.            Support Jordan Food and Drug Administration (JFDA) to develop guidelines for oil usage at the restaurants:

1.    A report will be developed on the quality of the oil after usage at the targeted restaurants in Jordan

2.    This report will be based on the results obtained from the assessment carried initially.

3.    Technical support will be provided to the Jordan Food and Drug Administration department, to update their protocol to inspect oil usage in restaurants

4.    Support to educate people on the health hazards of fried food consumption, thereby to reduce the consumption of fried foods.

5.    Support to frame new regulations to reduce total tans-fat in oil and to reduce consumption of oil re-usage in restaurant

6.     Develop guideline on oil usage for frying in the restaurants, which will strengthen the laws on oil usage and reduce the frequency of oil re-usage

7.    Develop monitoring tool modifying the available assessment tool, for a sustainable monitoring of the oil re-usage at the restaurants.

IV.           Support Ministry of Health and other partners working on NCDs:

1.    Provide data on the consumption of fried food from re-used oil which is the major cause for cardiovascular diseases, hypertension and diabetes

2.    Support them in awareness programs about Major risk factor of NCDs caused due to fried food consumption.

 

V.             Biofuel production:

1.    Collected oil will be tested for physical properties

2.    Collected oil will be pre-filtered

3.    Trans-etherification process will be used

4.    Heating in jacketed reaction chamber and resting process will be carried out

5.    The biodiesel fraction will be characterized according to ANP norms

6.    The yield will be calculated based on the mean molecular mass and the ethyl esters blend will be calculated according to the following equation:

Oil + 3Ethanol ---> 3Biodisel + Glycerin

7.    Yield percentage will be calculated to calculate large scale production and supply  

Role of different partners in planning and implementation of the program:

I.              Assessment of frying oil usage at the restaurants in Jordan:

Eastern Mediterranean Public Health Network (EMPHNET):

1.    Planning, coordination between partners, communication with government authorities to get permission to conduct the research and implementation.

2.    Prepare questionnaire and digitalizing the questionnaire

3.    Customize the mobile tool for assessment

4.    Recruit people to do assessment

5.    Train people to use mobile data tool, data entry and trouble shooting

6.    Data analysis and report preparation

7.    Preparation of dash board for each governorate on oil re-usage

Jordan Food and drug Administration (JFDA):

1.    Support EMPHNET by providing the information on amount of oil consumption in Jordan in order to correlate with current findings on fried food consumption from re- used oil

2.    Provide information on the existing regulations on frying oil usage at restaurants

3.    Support coordination with union of Restaurants to conduct assessment

4.     Review the assessment questionnaire to fill in the required gaps

5.    Support in assessment process

Ministry of Health (MoH):

1.    Provide information on the governorates, districts mapping to customize the mobile tool

2.    Provide permission to conduct the assessment

3.    Support EMPHNET in obtaining available data on NCD risk factors due to fried food consumption

Ministry of Planning and International Cooperation (MOPIC):

Provide permission to conduct the assessment

Union of Restaurants in Jordan:

1.    Render support to EMPHNET to conduct the assessment

2.    Provide information on the restaurants to be targeted in each governorate in Jordan

 National Petroleum Company (NPC):

1.    Support EMPHNET in gathering information on oil quality during the assessment.

Jordan Non-Communicable Disease Alliance(JNCDA):

1.    Support EMPHNET in reviewing the questionnaire

2.    Provide support in data collection

3.    Help to coordinate between the government and other organizations working on NCD risk factor

4.    Use the assessment to bring out the results on an approach to analyze the level of health risk which leads to NCD risk factor

5.    Assess the dash board regularly to gather the results

NOTE: assessment tool used during the pilot study will be later used as a tool for monitoring oil usage by JFDA

II.             Testing the quality of reused oil:

EMPHNET:

1.    Collect oil to be provided to NPC for oil testing

2.    Produce report on the pattern of oil usage from the assessment and provide to NPC, MoH, JFDA for further action

3.    Help JFDA to conduct the analysis to check the quality of the oil

Jordan Food and Drug Administration:

1.    Provide permission to the needed parties to collect oil from the restaurants.

2.    Frame the protocol for oil testing

3.    Perform HPLC analysis

4.    Conduct oxi-fry test  

5.    Provide results on the oil quality analysis

NPC:

Collect the labeled oil from the relevant parties for further analysis

Jordan Non-Communicable Disease Alliance: Support other parties to coordinate with the restaurants to collect the oil sample

III.            Support JFDA to develop guidelines for oil usage at the restaurants:

EMPHNET and JFDA:

1.    Review the current National regulations framed on frying oil usage at restaurants

2.    Review the available regulations to inspect the oil being re-used for frying

3.     Support JFDA to restructure the manual to inspect the current situation

4.    Develop guideline for the usage of frying oil at restaurants

5.    Develop monitoring tool for a sustainable usage, modifying already available assessment tool to monitor the oil usage in all the restaurants in the country

 

IV.           Support Ministry of Health and other NGOs:

EMPHNET, MOH, NGOs:

1.    Based on the data obtained on the re-usage of oil for frying the food at restaurants, MoH in coordination with other NGOs, will take necessary action to increase their focus to control the intake of fried foods by the community

2.    In particular intake of falafel can be reduced, further to reduce the major risk factors of non-communicable diseases

3.    Coordinate with their partners to increase the control of fried food consumption

4.    Work with World Health Organization to update the issue in the main stream of national NCDs frame work

5.    There by reduce the general government health expenditure which is spent at health care to treat NCD risk factors

 

V.             Biofuel production:

National Petroleum Company:

1.    Review the procedure proposed to produce biofuel from the used frying oil collected from the restaurants

2.    Create a plan and discuss with other partners on biofuel production

3.    Produce the biofuel first as a pilot

4.    Support EMPHNET to run the generators using biofuel

EMPHNET:

1.    Collect the biofuel for field testing

2.    Conduct field testing: fuel generators and test in the field

3.    Coordinate with responsible authorities to seek permission to supply biofuels for the refugee camps

4.    Monitor the collection of used oil and biofuel supply 

Who will take these actions?

Eastern Mediterranean Public Health Network(EMPHNET): A non- profit organization with a goal to improve health status of Eastern Mediterranean Region. It builds national and regional capacities in several priority public health areas. Focus includes applied epidemiology & research, NCDs, communicable disease, outreach & emergency, and health security. EMPHNET has successfully built a network of expertise, which it sees as one of its strongest attributes for meeting public health needs in the region. EMPHNET values partnership and collaboration, viewing these as two important components for enhancing performance through shared resources and knowledge. Through the partnership with NGOs, international organizations, Health ministries, public health institutions and private sectors, it addresses public health issues in order to influence the health of populations. Within the period of 8 years, EMPHNET is successful in supporting many countries in EMR to fulfill their unmet needs. Jordan, Egypt, Sudan, Iraq, Yemen, Afghanistan and Somalia were the most prioritized countries where EMPHNET has provided technical capacities to support the Ministry of Health in accomplishing their goals.

Ministry of Health: Government body responsible for all the health related development and monitoring in the country. The Ministry of Health undertakes all health affairs in the country and its tasks and duties 

 Ministry of planning and International Cooperation: Function to develop the Jordanian society economically, socially and  culturally in addition to enhancing the human development aspect, in light of the existing and future needs in order to improve Jordanians’ standards of living, through participatory planning on both local and national levels, and to provide and coordinate assistance through an integrated framework in cooperation with the government institutions, international donor community and civil society organizations

Jordan Food and Drug Administration (JFDA): JNCD have been created in 2003 as the sole national competent authority for drug safety & efficacy and food safety and quality. As an independent public sector regulatory institution, its objective is to ensure the safety of food, safe and efficacy of Drug, and safety of all products explicitly stated in enforced drug and pharmacy law.

Union of restaurants: Business domain, members are those who are operating restaurants in Jordan. The union work for the better coordination in hotel industry.

National Petroleum Company: NPC was established as a public share holding company for oil production in June 1995. The Jordan Government (Ministry of Financial) is the majority shareholder (99.9%), with issued capital of (15) million Jordanian Dinar.

Jordan Non-Communicable Disease Alliance (JNCD): Alliance of many civil societies functioning at national and regional level to strengthen the framework on Non-Communicable Diseases. Each party works on different entities of NCD control and prevention.

Target geography

Country: Jordan

Description: Jordan has 9.5 million populations including 2.5 Million guests. The population is distributed among 12 governorates over 3 regions (North, Middle and South). Majority of the population lives in Amman governorate.

A sector information says that 750 restaurants were started in 2016. The increasing influx of immigrants increased the demand for ready food and so increase in restaurants. The restaurants range between upscale dining outlets and small- to medium-sized eateries.

The study will cover all the 12 governorates in Jordan in order to cover all socio-economic range of restaurants which are being used by the local populations and immigrants, as consumption of fried food is common among all the Middle Eastern Countries.

What do you expect are the costs associated with piloting and implementing the solution, and what is your business model?

Piloting (1 year):  Total: 63, 700 USD

I.               Assessment of frying oil usage at the restaurants in Jordan:

Hiring project assistants for assessment: 8,000 USD

Development of mobile tool for data collection: 9,800 USD

Customization of questionnaire tool: 8,000 USD

Training data collectors on mobile tool: 3,000 USD

Development of dashboard: 2,000 USD

Tablets for assessment: 1,300 USD

IT support: 3,000 USD

II.             Testing the quality of reused oil:

HPLC testing: 3,000 USD

Oxi -fry testing kit: 600 USD

III.            Support JFDA to develop guidelines for oil usage at the restaurants:

Hiring project coordinators: 5,000 USD

Coordination meetings with Ministries and other stakeholders:1,000 USD

Preparation of guidelines and publicize updates: 3000 USD

IV.           Biofuel production: 16,000 â??USD

 

Large Scale (5 years): Total:  229, 800 USD

I.              Assessment of frying oil usage at the restaurants in Jordan:

Hiring project assistants for assessment: 40,000 USD

Development of mobile tool for data collection: 9,800 USD

Customization of questionnaire tool: 8,000 USD

Training data collectors on mobile tool: 3,000 USD

Development of dashboard: 10,000 USD

Tablets for assessment: 13,000 USD

IT support: 5000 USD

II.             Testing the quality of reused oil:

HPLC testing: 30,000 USD

Oxi -fry testing kit: 3000 USD

III.            Support JFDA to develop guidelines for oil usage at the restaurants:

Hiring project coordinators: 15,000 USD

Coordination meetings with Ministries and other stakeholders: 5,000 USD

Preparation of guidelines and publicize updates: 3000 USD

IV.           Biofuel production: 80,000 USD 

Timeline

Pilot: one year

I.               Assessment of frying oil usage at the restaurants in Jordan:

Development of questionnaire and customizing the mobile tool: 2 months

Training the data collectors and Field testing the customized tool: 10 days

Assessment of oil quality and re-usage: 5 Months

Result analysis and Dash board development: 3 Months

II.             Testing the quality of reused oil: 5 months (will be carried out simultaneously during assessment)

III.            Support JFDA to update their regulations to inspect oil usage at restaurants: 2 Months

IV.           Support Ministry of Health and other NGOs: 2 Months

V.             Biofuel production and field testing of the fuel: 2 Months

 

Large scale: 5 years

This large scale study will cover  the main Restaurants in 12 governorates of Jordan

I.               Assessment of frying oil usage at the restaurants in Jordan:

Development of questionnaire and customizing the mobile tool: 4 Months

Customizing the monitoring tool: 3 Months

Training the data collectors and Field testing the customized tool: 2 Months

Assessment of oil quality and re-usage: 4 years:

-          reassessment will be carried out after the analysis of the first round of assessment as a monitoring protocol

Result analysis and Dash board development (carried out during assessment): 4 years

II.             Testing the quality of reused oil: 4 years (will be carried out simultaneously during assessment)

III.            Support JFDA to update their regulations to inspect oil usage at restaurants for the development of Monitoring tool:  4 Months

IV.           Support Ministry of Health and other NGOs: 4 Months

V.             Biofuel production and field testing of the fuel: 4 years

Monitoring the oil usage in the restaurants: this is a sustainable activity. The monitoring tool will be used by Jordan Food and Drug Administration as a sustainable monitoring tool to follow up the oil re-usage at the restaurant. 

Related solutions

NONE

References

1.    Assessment of T opv to b OPV switch monitoring. EMPHNET Report. 2016.

2.    Department of Statistics. Jordan

3.    Duti IJ, Maliha M and Ahmed S (2016) Biodiesel production from waste frying oil and its process simulation. Journal of Modern Science and Technology. 4: 50-62.

4.    Filho SCS, Silva TAF et al. (2014). Potential of Biodiesel production from frying oil used in the restaurants of Sao Paulo city, Brazil. Italian Association of Chemical Engineering. 37:577-582. DOI: 10.3303/CET1437097

5.    Janakat SM and Ak-Khateeb MA (2011) Effect of a popular Middle Eastern food (Falafel) on a rat liver. Toxicology and Environmental Chemistry. 93: 360-369.

6.    Joint preparatory NCDs Assessment Mission to Jordan. UNDP Report. 2016.

7.    Jordan Food and Drug Administration. Regulations for testing oil and trans-fat.

8.    Repeated use of oil leads to increased trans-fat content. Science Chronicle. July 2016.

9.    Waste vegetable oil survey report. Rural Value Added Crop Assessment. Saultste Marie Innovation center and Science Enterprise Algoma.  2009.

10.  World Health Organization frame work on Non-Communicable Diseases.

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Solution Summary
Target NCD risk factor-Reduce frying oil re-use;Produce biofuel for refugee camp
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By:  EMPHNET - GHD
Challenge: Cure: Chronic Diseases
How can we help people prevent, detect and manage chronic diseases, especially in resources-limited settings?